Track 01Traditional Medicine
Traditional medicine is defined as the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement, or treatment of physical and mental illness.
Practices known as traditional medicines include traditional European medicine,
- Traditional Chinese medicine - Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine based on more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
- Traditional Korean medicine - The foundation of traditional Korean medicine (TKM) was originally set out in Korean mythology 5000 years ago. It has developed unique medical theories and methods to treat diseases including neurological disorders such as stroke, epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.
- Traditional African medicine - Traditional African medicine is a traditional medicine discipline involving indigenous herbalism and African spirituality, typically involving diviners, midwives, and herbalists. Practitioners of traditional African medicine claim to be able to cure various and diverse conditions such as cancers, psychiatric disorders, high blood pressure, cholera, most venereal diseases, epilepsy, asthma, eczema, fever, anxiety
Acupuncture is a form of treatment that involves inserting very thin needles through a person's skin at specific points on the body, to various depths. Conditions it is used for include different kinds of pain, such as headaches, blood pressure problems, and whooping cough, among others.
- Japanese Acupuncture - The Japanese use thinner needles, and a gentler technique with shallow insertion. Their diagnostic assessment relies heavily on palpation of the abdomen, back and various pulses along the meridian system. In fact, Japanese style acupuncture is often called 'meridian acupuncture' for this reason.
- Korean Acupuncture - Diagnosis in Korean acupuncture is focused on a full constitutional analysis, an old concept rooted in Chinese medicine. A constitutional diagnosis requires a completely separate book of prescriptions. Korean acupuncture also focuses on the extremities like the hand or ear.
- Chinese Acupuncture - In China, acupuncturists use big needles with a greater depth of insertion. They are trying to stimulate what is called the "De Qi" sensation, or "arrival of Qi" - life energy flowing through the body. A Chinese acupuncturist will try to enhance that sensation by gently rotating the needle. On a microscopic level, the surface of a Chinese needle is very rough, so patients will definitely feel the needle when is inserted. This heightens the De Qi response.
Track 03Integrative and Complementary Medicine
Complementary medicine refers to non-conventional practices used together with conventional (mainstream) medicine. Integrative medicine is health care that uses all appropriate therapeutic approaches—conventional and non-conventional—within a framework that focuses on health, the therapeutic relationship, and the whole person.
Integrative and complementary medicine can help people with cancer, persistent pain, chronic fatigue; fibromyalgia and many other conditions better manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life by reducing fatigue, pain and anxiety. Examples of common practices include:
- Acupuncture –Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine and a key component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
- Animal-assisted therapy -Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is an alternative or complementary type of therapy that involves animals as a form of treatment.[ It falls under the realm of Animal Assisted Interventions (AAI). AAI is general term that encompasses any intervention or treatment that includes an animal in a therapeutic context such as Emotional-Support Animals, Service/Assistance Animals (i.e., trained animals that assist and support with daily activities), and Animal Assisted Activity (AAA)
- Aromatherapy - Aromatherapy is a pseudoscience. It uses aromatic materials, including essential oils, and other aroma compounds, with claims for improving psychological or physical well-being. It is offered as a complementary therapy or as a form of alternative medicine, the first meaning alongside standard treatments,the second instead of conventional, evidence-based treatments.
- Massage therapy - Massage has been practiced for thousands of years. Today, if you need or want a massage, you can choose from about 80 massage therapy styles with a wide variety of pressures, movements, and techniques. These all involve pressing, rubbing, or manipulating muscles and other soft tissues with hands and fingers. Sometimes, even forearms, elbows, or feet are used.
- Music therapy - Music therapy is an evidence-based clinical use of musical interventions used to improve clients' quality of life. Music therapists use music and its many facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients improve their health in cognitive, motor, emotional, communicative, social, sensory, and educational domains by using both active and receptive music experiences.
- Meditation - Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state. Meditation may be used with the aim of reducing stress, anxiety, depression, and pain, and increasing peace, perception, self-concept, and well-being.
Track 04Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
Complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) is defined as anything not allopathic. It involves a focus on holistic, individual, and preventative health care. Whereas alternative medicine is used in place of prescriptions or traditional medicine, complementary medicine is used in addition to other treatments. Treatment methods are considered complementary or alternative because there is insufficient data to prove their safety or effectiveness. This type of care is “based on the patient’s needs and must be individualized to match the patient’s state, predicament, and preferences with consideration of the best available evidence”
The main divisions of CAM are
- Whole medical systems- Whole medical systems involve complete systems of theory and practice that have evolved independently from or parallel to allopathic (conventional) medicine. Many are traditional systems of medicine that are practiced by individual cultures throughout the world. Major Eastern whole medical systems include traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Kampo medicine (Japanese), and Ayurvedic medicine. Major Western whole medical systems include homeopathy and naturopathy.
- Mind-body medicine - Mind-body medicine focuses on:The interactions among the brain, the rest of the body, the mind, and behavior ; The ways in which emotional, mental, social, spiritual, experiential, and behavioral factors can directly affect health.
- Biologically based practices - Biologically Based Therapies use substances found in nature to treat illness or promote wellness. They include foods, vitamins, and both herbal and non-herbal dietary supplements.
- Manipulative and body-based practices- Manipulative and body-based practices focus primarily on the structures and systems of the body, including the bones and joints, the soft tissues, and the circulatory and lymphatic systems. Practices include chiropractic and osteopathic manipulation, therapeutic massage, and a variety of other "bodywork" therapies.
- Energy medicine - Energy Medicine is a word coined by three researchers who gathered at Boulder, Colorado, USA in the late 1980s. This is defined as any energetic or informational interaction with a biological system to bring back homeostasis in the organism.
Track 05Pharmacognosy and Nursing Practice
Pharmacognosy is the study of plants or other natural sources as a possible source of drugs. The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources"In nursing care, the intention is to become acquainted with the whole patient and perceive the patient in his or her physical, psychological, and spiritual being. A caring bond is developed, which aims at developing a personal, accompanying, and mediating relationship with the patient.
Track 06Holistic Medicine
Holistic medicine is a term used to describe therapies that attempt to treat the patient as a whole person. That is, instead of treating an illness, as in orthodox allopathy, holistic medicine looks at an individual’s overall physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional well being before recommending treatment. A practitioner with a holistic approach treats the symptoms of illness as well as looking for the underlying cause of the illness. Holistic medicine also attempts to prevent illness by placing a greater emphasis on optimizing health.
Some of the major holistic therapies:
- Herbal medicine - Herbal medicine (also Herbalism) is the study of the botany and use of medicinal plants. Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through much of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. Modern medicine makes use of many plant-derived compounds as the basis for evidence-based pharmaceutical drugs.
- Homeopathy - Homeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced almost all over the world. The word ‘Homoeopathy’ is derived from two Greek words, Homois meaning similar and pathos meaning suffering. Homoeopathy simply means treating diseases with remedies, prescribed in minute doses, which are capable of producing symptoms similar to the disease when taken by healthy people.
- Naturopathic medicine - Naturopathic medicine is a distinct primary health care profession, emphasizing prevention, treatment, and optimal health through the use of therapeutic methods and substances that encourage individuals’ inherent self-healing process. The practice of naturopathic medicine includes modern and traditional, scientific, and empirical methods.
- Traditional Chinese medicine - Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has evolved over thousands of years. TCM practitioners use various mind and body practices (such as acupuncture and tai chi) as well as herbal products to address health problems.
- Ayurvedic medicine - Ayurvedic medicine is one of the world's oldest holistic healing systems. It was developed more than 3,000 years ago in India. It’s based on the belief that health and wellness depend on a delicate balance between the mind, body, and spirit. Its main goal is to promote good health, not fight disease. But treatments may be geared toward specific health problems.
- Nutritional therapies - "Medical nutrition therapy" (MNT) is the use of specific nutrition services to treat an illness, injury, or condition. It involves the assessment of the nutritional status of the client and the actual treatment, which includes nutrition therapy, counseling, and the use of specialized nutrition supplements.
- Chiropractic - Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
- Psychotherapy – Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills.
Track 07Anthroposophic and alternative medicine
Anthroposophic medicine is an integrative multimodal treatment system based on a holistic understanding of man and nature and of disease and treatment. It builds on a concept of four levels of formative forces and on the model of a three-fold human constitution. Anthroposophic medicine is integrated with conventional medicine in large hospitals and medical practices. It applies medicines derived from plants, minerals, and animals. Anthroposophic healthcare is provided by medical doctors, therapists, and nurses.
Types of therapy include:
- Art Therapy - Art therapy involves the use of creative techniques such as drawing, painting, collage, coloring, or sculpting to help people express themselves artistically and examine the psychological and emotional undertones in their art. With the guidance of a credentialed art therapist, clients can "decode" the nonverbal messages, symbols, and metaphors often found in these art forms, which should lead to a better understanding of their feelings and behavior so they can move on to resolve deeper issues.
- Eurythmy Therapy - Eurythmy Therapy is a movement therapy that harmonizes the whole human being by balancing our physical body with our life forces and soul forces. Eurythmy Therapy has been successfully practiced for more than 80 years.
- Rhythmical Massage - Rhythmical Massage Therapy (RMT) is part of the Anthroposophical Medical System. RMT is a warm, nurturing, enveloping massage therapy that enlivens and balances the body, while calling forth the client's own healing forces. Archetypal forms of line, circle and lemniscate, are a basis for the massage movements.
- Counseling - Counseling is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.
- Psychotherapy - Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, is a way to help people with a broad variety of mental illnesses and emotional difficulties. Psychotherapy can help eliminate or control troubling symptoms so a person can function better and can increase well-being and healing.
Track 08Indigenous or Tribal Medicine
Tribal medicine is a part of the indigenous medicine and is used by tribal in the forest. It is the little traditional medicine or the folk streams. The tribal medicine is also known as the ethnomedicine. From the ancient era the people especially the tribal have known the use of the herbs and roots for the healing purpose. There is an estimation of 25,000 plants used as the tribal medicinal plants. 80% of the raw materials required in the manufacture of drugs are forest-based.
- Traditional African Medicines- Traditional African medicine is a holistic discipline involving extensive use of indigenous herbalism combined with aspects of African spirituality.
- Traditional Chinese Medicines - Traditional Chinese medicine is a system of medicine partly based on the idea that an energy, called qi (say "chee"), flows along pathways in the body called meridians. In this belief, if the flow of qi along these meridians is blocked or unbalanced, illness can occur. In China, doctors have practiced traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years, and it is gaining in popularity in many Western countries.
Aromatherapy, or essential oil therapy, refers to a range of traditional, alternative or complementary therapies that use essential oils and other aromatic plant compounds. A range of essential oils have been found to have various degrees of antimicrobial activity and are believed to have antiviral, nematicidal, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties.
Aromatherapy applications include
Track 10Exercise and Physical therapy
Physical therapy is defined as a treatment method that focuses on the science of movement and helps people to restore, maintain and maximize their physical strength, function, motion and overall well-being by addressing the underlying physical issues.
Physical therapy and exercise encompasses rehabilitation, injury prevention and health promotion/fitness. The profession employs a holistic approach to treatment, looking at the patient’s lifestyle and engaging them in their own treatment.
The most common physical therapy techniques are:
- Manual manipulation - Manual therapy, or manipulative therapy, is a physical treatment primarily used by physical therapists, physiotherapists to treat musculoskeletal pain and disability; it most includes kneading and manipulation of muscles, joint mobilization and joint manipulation.
- Electrical nerve stimulation – Electrical nerve stimulation is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes.
- Acupuncture - Acupuncture involves the insertion of very thin needles through your skin at strategic points on your body. A key component of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture is most commonly used to treat pain. Increasingly, it is being used for overall wellness, including stress management.
Track 11Ayurveda-The Science of Eight Components
Ayurveda is considered by many scholars to be the oldest healing science. In Sanskrit, Ayurveda means “The Science of Life.” Ayurvedic knowledge originated in India more than 5,000 years ago and is often called the “Mother of All Healing.”
Recognizing that human beings are part of nature, Ayurveda describes three fundamental energies that govern our inner and outer environments: movement, transformation, and structure. Known in Sanskrit as Vata (Wind), Pitta(Fire), and Kapha (Earth), these primary forces are responsible for the characteristics of our mind and body.
Ayurveda is known as Astanga Ayurveda- means that which is made up of eight parts. The eight major divisions of Ayurveda are as follow as:
- Kayachikitsa (Internal Medicine) : Kaya Chikitsa mainly deals with the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of general diseases, such as skin disorders, diabetes, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis and many other disorders.
- Kaumar Bhritya (Pediatrics) : Kaumarbhritya is one of the branch of Ashtang Ayurveda which deals with care of the infants, children; their diseases and management.
- Bhootavidya (Psychiatry) : It is an Ayurvedic branch that works against mental disorders and is part of the eight branches of Ashtanga Ayurveda. Based from Ayurvedic scriptures found in ‘Graham Vidya Dravya,’ it deals on the medication of mental illness though the use of specified medicines, meditation and yoga.
- Shalakya (Otorhinolaryngology and Ophthalmology) : Shalakya tantra which is one of the eight classical branches of Ayurveda deals with the description and treatment of organs seated above the neck (clavicle) like Ear, Nose, Throat, Head, Eye and teeth (Dental).
- Shalya (Surgery) : Shalya Chikitsa is one among the 8 branchs of Ayurveda which deals with the surgical management to remove the foreign bodies like varios grasses, wooden pieces, stones, iron pieces etc. Correction of fractures, wounds and pustules which are happening inside and outside of the body, removal of foetus etc. with the help of various instruments, alkalis and fire.
- Agada Tantra (toxicology) : Agada is one of the eight branches into which ayurveda medicine is traditionally divided. Literally, gada means a disease and agada means any agent which makes the body free from disease; however the term agada is used specifically for the branch of medicine dealing with toxicology, the description of the different types of poisons, and their antidotes.
- Rasayana (Geriatrics) is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people. It aims to promote health by preventing and treating diseases and disabilities in older adults.
- Vajikarana (Aprhodisiacs and Eugenics) : Vajikarana or Vrishya chikitsa is a one of eight major specialty of the Ashtanga Ayurveda. This subject is concerned with aphrodisiacs, virility and improving health of progeny.
Track 12History and Evolution of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Conventional pharmaceuticals have a long history: it is the whole of the practices in view of the hypotheses, convictions and encounters of various societies and times, frequently baffling, utilized as a part of the support of wellbeing, as like in the counteractive action, conclusion, change and treatment of diseases. In each nation customary drugs discover establishment in enchanted or religious convictions, or well-known understanding and the World Health Organization is locked in to build up complete rules for system of clinical research and the examination of adequacy of conventional prescription.
Track 13Homeopathic Medicine
Homeopathy, also known as homeopathic medicine, is a medical system that was developed in Germany more than 200 years ago. It’s based on two unconventional theories:
- “Like cures like”—the notion that a disease can be cured by a substance that produces similar symptoms in healthy people
- “Law of minimum dose”—the notion that the lower the dose of the medication, the greater its effectiveness. Many homeopathic products are so diluted that no molecules of the original substance remain.
Track 14Arabic Medicine and Hijama Cupping Therapy
Cupping therapy or Hijama is a leading traditional practice after spiritual healings and herbal medicine in Saudi Arabia. The Prophet Mohammed is known as a fervent user and advocate of Hijama, a cupping therapy. This therapy is considered as holistic and an excellent form of preventative therapy. This removes all the toxins from the body, which provides pain relief and also improves circulatory and immune systems, treats several illnesses such as skeletal, muscular, neurological, cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, and urinary issues.
Types of Cupping:
- Dry cupping - A vacuum is created in the cup and it is placed on the body. This vacuum causes a negative pressure, pulling the muscles into the cup and drawing the blood to the cupped area. This is called ‘Dry cupping’.
- Flash cupping : Flash cupping is a technique used to apply suction to the skin in short intervals or ‘flashes’. This means that the cup is placed on the skin for approximately 5 seconds before the pressure inside it is released and it is taken off again. This is repeated along the patch of skin that has been selected for treatment. Practitioners normally use this form of Hijama when their patient requires facial treatment, for example those with sinus conditions or those seeking Hijama for beauty or cosmetic purposes.
- Wet cupping - When the cup is removed and a small, shallow incision is made in that same area, and the cup is placed back on. This removes the toxic blood, excess fluids and acids from the body. This is called as ‘Wet Cupping.’
- Massage cupping : Massage cupping involves movement of the cup over the patients’s skin via the use of additional oil and reduced yet maintaining suction. At Pure Therapy, we use this technique as part of our treatment to stimulate blood flow within the areas that are about to have Hijama applied to them. This is done to manually shake up cellular waste and prepare the tissues for the rest of the treatment.
Track 15Unani Medicine
Unani medicine, also called Unani tibb, Arabian medicine, or Islamic medicine, a traditional system of healing and health maintenance observed in South Asia. The origins of Unani medicine are found in the doctrines of the ancient Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen. The history of Unani medicine can be characterized by the work of its practitioners, or hakims, who relied on natural healing based on principles of
Track 16Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry
Phytochemistry accords with phytochemicals which are obtained from a plant source. In recent years, there is a great insistence to phytochemical constituents as they are devoid of adverse reactions. On account of lack of modern scientific evidence for their basis of action on diseases, a crude extract is not well accepted. But due to the adverse side effects & increasing failure of modern drugs to cure the ailments, the attention has been turned back towards ancient systems of medicine, such as, Ayurveda, Unani and Chinese. Consequently, plants have once again attained the centre stage in the efforts aimed at developing effective drugs for diseases incurable by modern medicine system.
Track 17Naturopathic Medicine
Naturopathy is a distinct type of primary care medicine that blends age-old healing traditions with scientific advances and current research. It is guided by a unique set of principles that recognize the body's innate healing capacity, emphasize disease prevention, and encourage individual responsibility to obtain optimal health. Naturopathic treatment modalities include diet and clinical nutrition, behavioral change, hydrotherapy, homeopathy, botanical medicine, physical medicine, pharmaceuticals, and minor surgery.
Track 18Medicinal Plants and Herbs
The term “medicinal plant” includes various types of plants used in herbalism ("herbology" or "herbal medicine"). It is the use of plants for medicinal purposes, and the study of such uses. The word “herb” has been derived from the Latin word, “herba” and an old French word “herbe”. Now a days, herb refers to any part of the plant like fruit, seed, stem, bark, flower, leaf, stigma or a root, as well as a non-woody plant. These medicinal plants are also used as food, flavonoid, medicine or perfume and also in certain spiritual activities. Plants have been used for medicinal purposes long before prehistoric period. Ancient Unani manuscripts Egyptian papyrus and Chinese writings described the use of herbs. Evidence exist that Unani Hakims, Indian Vaids and European and Mediterranean cultures were using herbs for over 4000 years as medicine. Plants have been used for medicinal purposes long before prehistoric period.
Track 19Natural products and Pharmaceutical Drugs
Nature, the master of craftsman of molecules created almost an inexhaustible array of molecular entities. It stands as an infinite resource for drug development, novel chemotypes and pharmacophores, and scaffolds for amplification into efficacious drugs for a multitude of disease indications and other valuable bioactive agents. Since time immemorial, natural products have been the backbone of traditional system of healing throughout the globe, and have also been an integral part of history and culture.
Natural products discovered so far have played a vital role in improving the human health and have been the drugs of choice despite facing a tough competition from compounds derived from computational and combinatorial chemistry, due to their safety and efficacy. The most striking feature of natural products in connection to their long lasting importance in drug discovery is their structural diversity that is still largely untapped.
Track 20Siddha and Unani System
Siddha system of medicine is practiced in some parts of South India especially in the state of Tamilnadu. It has close affinity to Ayurveda yet it maintains a distinctive identity of its own. This system has come to be closely identified with Tamil civilization. The term ‘Siddha’ has come from ‘Siddhi’- which means achievement. Siddhars were the men who achieved supreme knowledge in the field of medicine, yoga or tapa (meditation). The materia medica of Siddha system of medicine depends to large extent on drugs of metal and mineral origin in contrast to Ayurveda of earlier period, which was mainly dependent upon drugs of vegetable origin.
Diagnosis in Siddha system is carried out by the well -known ‘ashtasthana pareeksha’(examination of eight sites) that encompasses examination of nadi (pulse), kan (eyes), swara (voice), sparisam (touch), varna (colour), na (tongue), mala (faeces) and neer (urine).
Similar to Ayurveda, Siddha system also follows ashtanga concept with regards to treatment procedures. Following are the types of treatments in Siddha :
- Varman (Pressure Manipulating therapy) is special kind of treatment in Siddha system and specific points being manipulated by pressure with the figure and the pain is relieved and the restricted movement becomes free and active.
- Thokkanam is another type of treatment which includes applying oil on the area of swelling and pain and massaging so that the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal pain and swelling is relieved.